Every year, 90 billion tonnes of primary materials on average are extracted and used globally, with less than 10% being recycled. This is commercially unsustainable and it can cause significant detrimental impacts on the environment. The circular economy of waste supports the development of new industries and jobs, reduces emissions, and can increase the efficient use of natural resources including energy, water, and other materials.
The material recirculation and a move towards recycling with high quality are critical to developing a circular economy; systemic adjustments along value chains are also considered necessary, fundamentally altering production and consumption patterns (Laouar et al., 2019).
Solar and wind are playing a greater role in power generation, leading to hundreds of gigawatts worth of new renewable energy generation. However, without effective energy storage techniques, natural gas and coal are needed for times when weather conditions aren’t favourable. Large-scale storage is becoming instrumental if society is to shift away from a world dependent on fossil fuel, and will define the next decade.
Nuclear energy, like all industries and energy-producing systems, generates waste products. Nuclear waste is divided into three categories based on its radioactivity: low-level, intermediate-level, and high-level. Only highly contaminated objects, such as tools and work apparel, make up the great majority of the waste (90 per cent of total volume) yet contain only 1% of the total radioactivity.
When discussing climate change, renewable energy is usually the first and most important topic that comes to mind. With a list of changes that could be implemented to mitigate the effects of rising temperatures, obvious renewable energy sources such as solar and wind don’t emit greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, that contribute to global warming.
When our forefathers figured out a way to mine and burn fossil fuel to run machines, they built a network connecting all corners of the planet. Moving goods and people is now easier, faster, and cheaper than it has ever been before. Every one of us is a node in a wide transport network and a demand point in a global supply chain.
Carbonization can be defined as converting organic and solid substances into carbon-containing emissions, affecting the environment. The gas produced through the carbonization of the materials like steel or timber creates deadly effects on human health and the environment (Hu et al., 2010). The emphasis of the study is entirely based on the construction industry determining the effects of carbonization of the materials used, including steel, timber, and sand. Hence, the study will provide an in-depth analysis of the strategic implementation of decarbonization in the construction sector to mitigate the effects of carbon emissions that affect the environment and human health (Farooq et al., 2019).
Not so long ago, Air pollution dropped across the world during the quarantine decreed because of COVID-19, with outstanding images illustrating the considerable drop in CO2 emissions. The drop in nitrogen dioxide emissions across the planet was caused mainly by the new behavioural changes; over a number of months, there were hardly any cars on the streets in cities in which the authorities had decreed confinement. In China, CO2 emissions dropped by 25% in March 2020!
Water covers two-thirds of the world, but only 1% of it is suitable for human use. On Earth, there are 326 million trillion gallons of water. The remaining 97 per cent is saltwater, which is unfit to drink. Freshwater makes up 2.5 per cent of the total, but most of it is locked in the poles or deep below. This leaves us with about 0.4 per cent to distribute among the 7 billion people on the planet.
This report discusses the rising market demand for lithium and the land reserves of lithium is going to be depleted by the end of 2080. That’s why there is a need to find some alternative. As rejected brine seawater contains a lot amount of lithium, there is a need to extract that lithium from the seawater. The process description and working of the electrochemical cell are explained in this report. A comparison of different techniques to extract lithium is also provided and the best possible techniques so far are discussed which was practically performed by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and some results of this experiment have also been shared.