Review of Modern Trends in Water Production, Purification, and Management

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Climatic changes resulting from ominous human activities and excessive use of freshwater resources have adversely affected the quality and the quantity of the groundwater reserves. Access to potable water is getting limited globally, specifically across the Middle East and North Africa. Moreover, due to the presence of toxic pollutants freshwater shortage is also felt in Central and Western European countries and Latin America (Bundschuh et al., 2021). The population boom has exacerbated the water deficiency to a further dwindling level of below 1500 m3 per year (per person availability), which is far below the minimum essential standards.