Every year, 90 billion tonnes of primary materials on average are extracted and used globally, with less than 10% being recycled. This is commercially unsustainable and it can cause significant detrimental impacts on the environment. The circular economy of waste supports the development of new industries and jobs, reduces emissions, and can increase the efficient use of natural resources including energy, water, and other materials.
The material recirculation and a move towards recycling with high quality are critical to developing a circular economy; systemic adjustments along value chains are also considered necessary, fundamentally altering production and consumption patterns (Laouar et al., 2019).
Water covers two-thirds of the world, but only 1% of it is suitable for human use. On Earth, there are 326 million trillion gallons of water. The remaining 97 per cent is saltwater, which is unfit to drink. Freshwater makes up 2.5 per cent of the total, but most of it is locked in the poles or deep below. This leaves us with about 0.4 per cent to distribute among the 7 billion people on the planet.
This report discusses the rising market demand for lithium and the land reserves of lithium is going to be depleted by the end of 2080. That’s why there is a need to find some alternative. As rejected brine seawater contains a lot amount of lithium, there is a need to extract that lithium from the seawater. The process description and working of the electrochemical cell are explained in this report. A comparison of different techniques to extract lithium is also provided and the best possible techniques so far are discussed which was practically performed by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and some results of this experiment have also been shared.
Climatic changes resulting from ominous human activities and excessive use of freshwater resources have adversely affected the quality and the quantity of the groundwater reserves. Access to potable water is getting limited globally, specifically across the Middle East and North Africa. Moreover, due to the presence of toxic pollutants freshwater shortage is also felt in Central and Western European countries and Latin America (Bundschuh et al., 2021). The population boom has exacerbated the water deficiency to a further dwindling level of below 1500 m3 per year (per person availability), which is far below the minimum essential standards.
Nowadays Circular Economy is mostly linked to anything, at the centre of many international debates, but what is it specifically?
Despite our actual Linear Economy, where production systems end with the disposal of dangerous waste, a Circular Economy aims to reduce most of the waste, converting it into an available resource that can be reused as secondary raw material in the production process. Every product or output, from the moment it is manufactured to the moment of its actual use, is optimized until the end of its life cycle. In this way, it is possible to recover and reuse all (or almost) the waste material as a starting point in another production chain.